World’s deepest spot in the ocean – Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench is located in the Pacific Ocean, just east of the 14 Mariana Islands (11″21′ North latitude and 142″ 12′ East longitude ) near Japan.
It was created by ocean-to-ocean subduction, a phenomena in which a plate topped by oceanic crust is subducted beneath another plate topped by oceanic crust.The deepest spot in the ocean is called the Mariana Trench and is approximately 35, 797 ft (10,911 m) deep in the Pacific Ocean. That’s deeper than the height of the world’s highest mountain, Mount Everest, which is 29,035 ft (8,850 m) high.
At the bottom of the trench the water columns above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), over 1000 times the standart atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure the density of water is increased by 4.96%, making 95 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C.
The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere: its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) less at the poles than at the equator. As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth’s center than the Challenger Deep seafloor.